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Habitats
 

Despite its small size, Gibraltar contains a number of habitats of interest to wildlife.  Among the most interesting are those of the Upper Rock.

 

THE UPPER ROCK

Map of the Upper Rock Nature Reserve showing the extent of each habitat recorded

Photographs of the habitats and lists of the main plant species within it are given below.

High Maquis.

Main species:

Wild Olive Olea europea                                 

Osyris  Osyris quadripartita                       

Mediterranean Buckthorn Rhamnus alaternus

Lentisc  Pistacia lentiscus                         

Virgin's Bower Clematis cirrhosa

Rough Smilax  Smilax aspera

Turpentine Tree Pistacia terebinthus

Pipe Vine Aristolochia baetica                     

Bear's Breech Acanthus mollis

                           

Low Maquis, contrasting with High Maquis in the background.

Main species:

Wild Olive  Olea europea                                 

Osyris  Osyris quadripartita                    

Mediterranean Buckthorn  Rhamnus alaternus

Lentisc Pistacia lentiscus                         

Dwarf Fan Palm Chamaerops humilis

Spiny Broom  Calicotome villosa

                        

Maquio-garigue.

Main species:

Wild Olive  Olea europea                                 

Osyris  Osyris quadripartita                      

Common Asphodel  Asphodelus aestivus

Esparto Grass  Stipa tenacissima

Yellow Tree Thistle Carthamus arborescens

Lentisc  Pistacia lentiscus                        

Sea Daisy  Asteriscus maritimus                   

Spiny Broom  Calicotome villosa

Hyparrhenia  Hyparrhenia hirta

Spiny Asparagus  Asparagus albus

Dwarf Fan Palm  Chamaerops humilis

Germander  Teucrium fruticans              

         

Garigue.

Main species:

Osyris  Osyris quadripartita   

Bear's Breech  Acanthus mollis

Grasses/herbs              

Hyparrhenia  Hyparrhenia hirta            

Esparto Grass  Stipa tenacissima       

Lentisc  Pistacia lentiscus        

Tree Aloe  Aloe arborescens      

Common Asphodel  Asphodelus aestivus   

Wild Olive  Olea europea                

Dwarf Fan Palm  Chamaerops humilis    

   

Pseudosteppe.

Main species:

Bear's Breech  Acanthus mollis

Yellow Tree Thistle  Carthamus arborescens

Giant Tangier Fennel  Ferula tingitana              

Alexanders  Smyrnium olusatrum                   

Galactites  Galactites tomentosus            

Germander  Teucrium fruticans        

Common Asphodel  Asphodelus aestivus       

Thapsia  Thapsia villosa           

Mallow-leaved Bindweed Convolvulus althaeoides

Sea Daisy  Asteriscus maritimus    

Grasses                          

African Cornflag  Chasmanthe floribunda         

Hyparrhenia  Hyparrhenia hirta                 

Common Mallow  Malva sylvestris

Bermuda Buttercup  Oxalis pes-caprae

             

         

Open, semi-exotic woodland at Bruce's Farm.

Main species:

Wild Olive  Olea europea                         

Climbing Groundsel  Senecio angulatus       

Bear's Breech  Acanthus mollis              

Tree of Heaven  Ailanthus altissima          

Prickly Pear  Opuntia ficus-indica                

Mediterranean Buckthorn  Rhamnus alaternus  

Fig  Ficus carica                       

Cape Honeysuckle  Tecoma capensis         

Osyris  Osyris quadripartita  

Teline  Genista linifolia                   

Leadwort  Plumbago auriculata           

Rosemary  Rosmarinus officinalis     

         

Mediterranean woodland with Celtis australis at The Mount.

 

Main species:

Wild Olive  Olea europea                             

Nettle Tree Celtis australis           

Lesser Elm  Ulmus minor                      

Laurel  Laurus nobilis                         

Bear's Breech  Acanthus mollis              

Tree of Heaven  Ailanthus altissima

Italian Cypress  Cupressus sempervirens       

Pipe Vine  Aristolochia baetica           

Lantana  Lantana camara  

 

Taken from Perez, C. & Bensusan, K. (2005) Upper Rock Nature Reserve: A Management  and Action Plan.  GONHS. Gibraltar

 

 

 

 

Key to the main habitats of the Upper Rock

 

 

Mediterranean Woodland with some Exotics

 

Open, Semi-exotic woodland

 

Pseudosteppe

 

Pseudosteppe/Garigue

 

Pseudosteppe/High Maquis

 

Low Maquis

 

High Maquis

 

Low/high Maquis

 

Maquio-garigue

 

Garigue

 

Cliff